By R B Smith
The moment quantity covers the interval among 1961 and the choice of the Johnson management to expand the clash in February 1965. specifically, reacting opposed to the typical tendency to treat counterinsurgency as only the prelude to a bigger conflict, it seeks to appreciate the Kennedy process in its personal phrases, putting Vietnam judgements into the broader context of Kennedy's virtually idealistic know-how of the becoming significance of the 3rd international. the writer re-examines the well known crises and debates of these years and makes an attempt to devise the series of Hanoi's decision-making. He additionally areas Vietnam into its local context, taking note of successive crises in Laos and to Indonesia's coverage of 'confrontation' opposed to the Federation of Malaysia. when the infamous 'domino concept' now seems to be a lot too simplistic a formula, it truly is however transparent that what used to be taking place through the Sixties used to be in lots of respects a fight for South-East Asia which the us couldn't have the funds for to lose. '...Dr Smith's moment quantity continues the excessive criteria of scholarship and lucidity set via his first, and it's crucial analyzing for a person attracted to the background of foreign relations.' David Gillard, instances better schooling Supplement
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Extra resources for An International History of the Vietnam War: Volume II: The Struggle for South-East Asia, 1961–65
Their own intervention, even if the details remained secret, was inevitably more open and undeniable than Communist infiltration of men and supplies through Laos; and American processes of decisionmaking were always more public than those of the VNWP and its branches in South Vietnam. One other course open to the United States seems not to have been seriously considered at this time, although it must have been discussed hypothetically at the Pentagon: namely military action against North Vietnam.
The actual programme approved by NSAM no. I I I, dated 22 November I96I, was based on the principle of counterinsurgency as a form of military assistance. The United States would assist the government and armed forces of South Vietnam to defend themselves, by expanding training programmes, sending more advisers to work with Vietnamese officers in the field, and most important of all supplying a number of logistic support teams of helicopters and armoured vehicles manned by American troops. The first helicopter units arrived on I I December and by the end of the year there were already 26oo American military personnel operating in South Vietnam; more would arrive during I962.
Elsewhere in Africa the first moves were being made towards armed revolt against Portuguese colonial rule: that, too, presented a big opportunity for African Communists. In this context Vietnam was the one case where an anti-colonial 24 rg6r-2 independence movement had been completely taken over by Communists- and had succeeded in gaining control of half the country. And now, despite efforts to present itself to the world as a genuinely nationalist organisation, the Communist-led NLFSVN was seeking to absorb the rest of the country into a unified socialist state.