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Additional info for Aircraft Profile No. 37: The Curtiss JN-4
The average energy transferred per collision may be written Ë where Ë lies between 0 and 2/zv hv — 2 T 2 / T ~ a n d hv is the energy of the photon. Since mc2 equals 0-51 MeV, if the energy hv of the incident photon is written as E0 when measured in MeV, this maximum value is about 4 £ 0 2 /(4 £ 0 + l ) MeV. The energy transferred to the electrons is therefore άΕ = ΝβσηΕάχ where there are TV incident photons per cm 2 . Values of e<5 for different energies E0 of the incident primary photon can be deduced from the formula derived by Klein and Nishina (1929).
To calculate the rate of energy loss it is necessary to know not only the average loss per collision but also the number of such collisions. The probability of a collision depends only on the electron density traversed and not on the chemical constitution or structure of the medium. It is therefore possible to obtain a scattering probability per electron, and multiply by the number of electrons per gram or cm3 to deduce the number of collisions. The probability άΡ of an incident photon being scattered by a Compton collision in traversing a thickness ax can be written d P = ean ax where n is the number of electrons per cm3 and ea is the Compton scattering coefficient per electron which depends only on the energy of the incident particle.
When ß-radiation is used from a radioactive source, the maximum penetration is still given as about 0-35E g/cm2, if Eis taken as the maximum energy of the ß-particles. The shape of the ionization curve is, however, very different from that shown in Fig. 7, due to presence of lower energy particles, with shorter maximum range. It is often sufficiently accurate to consider the ionization of ß-radiation as falling off exponentially. If ß-ray ionization falls to half its initial value in a thickness d of a material, a variation of ± 2 5 per cent in ionization density will only be achieved if the specimen thickness is restricted to 0-1 Ad, half the incident energy being lost.